This optional part of Problem Set 6 teaches you to support network robustness by handling loss, delay, congestion, and unexpected inputs.
We are not covering networking in lecture this year, but lecture notes for networking are available, and working on networking may be fun for you. Out of fairness concerns, we will not evaluate network pong for extra credit.
./pong61 program tests network robustness (and some synchronization).
Once you have merged, edit the
pset6/serverinfo.h file so that
PONG_USER is defined to a unique string that only you know.
Note. We currently do not plan to implement authentication on the pong server. This means that, if you learn another person’s string, you can mess with their heads. Please do not abuse this system. Aggressive abuse will be reported to The Authorities.
It will print out a URL. Visit that URL in your browser. You should see a bouncing ball in a rectangular field:
pong61 works by sending HTTP messages to a Web server we run. HTTP is the
application protocol on which the Web is built. Read more about HTTP before
you continue. When it starts up,
pong61 makes a single request
to a URL like this:
This tells the server to reset the pong board’s state. The server clears the board and returns a simple response containing the board’s width and height:
pong61 makes many requests to URLs like this:
This request causes a new ball to appear at position (
The server responds with a numeric code and explanation. If everything
goes well, it says:
If there’s a problem, the numeric code is negative, as in:
-1 x and y parameters must be numbers
After each request,
pong61 waits 0.1 seconds before making the next
Our handout code runs each HTTP request in its own thread. The main thread spins to wait for each thread to complete before going on to the next. This works just fine on Phase 0. To do the problem set, you must change the code so it works on the other phases too, and introduce synchronization along the way. Use the web page’s phase buttons to change phases.
Phase 1: Loss
In Phase 1, the server starts to lose messages. It will occasionally
go offline for a short period. During that time, every
move request is
rejected by closing down the connection. The
http_connection::receive_response_headers() function sets
-1 when this happens, but
the pong thread ignores this problem and continues as if everything was
fine. That position in the pong trail never gets filled in. Our server
shows this mistake by drawing black marks in the spaces.
Your job in this phase is to detect lost messages and retry. When the server drops a connection, your code should close that connection (to free its resources) and make a new connection attempt at the same position. It shouldn’t move to the next position until the server responds for the current position.
However, you must be careful not to bombard the server while it is offline. The server will notice this and explode. Instead, you must implement a form of exponential backoff. This is a simple, powerful concept.
- The first time a connection attempt fails, wait for K seconds before trying again. A good initial value for K is 0.01 sec; it shouldn’t be too long—1 sec is way too large.
- If the retry also fails, wait 2K seconds before trying again.
- If that retry also fails, wait 4K seconds before trying again.
- In general, after N failed retries, wait 2NK seconds before trying again. (You may want to introduce a maximum backoff; perhaps you would wait min(2NK, 128) seconds before trying again.)
Exponential backoff is awesome because it responds to short outages quickly, but imposes only logarithmic overhead (i.e., the number of messages sent during the outage is logarithmic in the length of the outage). It’s ubiquitous: Ethernet is built on it, and the next time your Gmail goes offline, check out the numbers that appear after “Not connected. Trying again in...”.
Hint: Implement one phase at a time, always thinking how you could accomplish the task in the simplest correct way. Avoid overengineering! Our solution set implements all phases, without race conditions, in less than 60 lines of code.
Slow networks: The
pong61server may report spurious errors if you are doing the problem set remotely or over a slow network. Use the grading server to check for errors if you think your errors are spurious.
Phase 2: Delay
In Phase 2, the server delays its responses. It will send you the full header for its response, but delay the body. Since the handout loop waits for the body before sending the next request, the pong ball will move extremely slowly in Phase 2. Too slowly, in fact: the server enforces a minimum ball speed, and when your code is slower than that speed, you’ll see some black marks on the display.
You might think solving this problem would be easy: just close the connection before the response arrives. But the server is too clever for this. If you close a connection prematurely, it explodes.
To support delay, your
pong61 must handle multiple concurrent
connections to the server. Now, the main thread may need to spawn a new
thread before the response arrives! But watch out. If you leak
connections, the server will explode.
Your Phase 2 code must also work in Phase 1. We suggest you make Phase 2 work first on its own, then go back and make Phase 1 work again.
Phase 3: Utilization and Synchronization
So far, your
pong61 client opens a new network connection for every
ball. This is wasteful and slow and in Phase 3 the server will not allow
it. You should instead reuse valid HTTP connections for new ball
http_connection object is available for reuse if and only if
conn->cstate == cstate_idle. This means that the server sent a
complete response and is waiting for another request.
Reusing connections would be really easy—except that in Phase 3 the
server also drops some connections (as in Phase 1) and delays some
connections (as in Phase 2). Your
pong61 client must handle it all,
and you must use synchronization primitives correctly.
The key function you’ll need to add is a connection table of available
connections. This can be a linked list, an array, a
std::deque, or whatever you’d like. When a connection reaches state
cstate_idle, add it to the table. When you need to call a new RPC, check the
table first, and use that connection if one exists.
Make sure that you protect your connection table from concurrent access!
There should be no race condition bugs. Use synchronization objects to
handle this. You should simultaneously remove the unsafe global
variable and replace it with a synchronization object.
Phase 4: Congestion
In Phase 4, the server sometimes behaves as if it is congested. A
congested server responds to a request not with
0 OK, but with a
positive number, such as this:
This means that the server is overloaded.
pong61 is not allowed to
send any more requests for (in this case) 1948 milliseconds—not even
from concurrent threads. This should give the server enough time to
cool down. The display will show a stop sign during the cool-down
period, and if
pong61 ignores the stop request and sends a message
anyway, the server will explode. But after the cool-down period, the
client should go right back to sending requests. A congestion response
can sometimes be delayed, as in Phase 2; your client threads should
proceed during the delay, entering the cool-down period only once the
whole response is available.
Phases 1 through 3 are still active in Phase 4. Phase 4 may catch some race conditions in your code from Phase 3.
The best solutions will avoid all race conditions for non-delayed
responses, meaning that the
main thread will remain blocked during an
immediate congestion signal (i.e., a complete congestion signal included
in the server’s initial response). This may require changes to your
Phase 2 code.
Phase 5: Evil
Phase 5 is a mystery, but run it and you’ll figure out the problem soon enough.
Hints and advice
For full credit, your code must not suffer from race condition bugs. You’ll
need to think this through carefully, as race conditions may not show up
during normal testing.
./pong61 should run cleanly with thread sanitizers.
./pong61 -f flag, which runs
pong61 faster than normal, might be
useful as you look for race conditions.
We are only concerned with race conditions inside your client (i.e., between different client threads). We are not concerned with rare issues with scheduling between the server and the client, such as network reordering. It is impossible to avoid all client–server race conditions in this pset. But as usual, your code should never execute undefined behavior.
If you have extra time, implement something fun. For example, two teams could get together and implement Space Invaders (one team programming the monsters, and one team programming the spaceship)! Here are some RPCs the server implements that might be useful.
- Your fun mode should run when
pong61is given the
main, this is indicated by
nocheck == 1). This flag turns off the server’s checking facilities. Without the
-nflag, your client should run in normal mode.
- You can query the state of a cell with a
- You can set a cell to a new state for a given duration with a
move?x=XPOS&y=YPOS&style=STYLE&duration=MILLISECONDSRPC. This only works in
nocheckmode. You can also append
&fade=MILLISECONDSto the RPC to control how quickly the cell fades out (the fadeout defaults to 4 seconds).
STYLEhas a number of interesting possibilities. See if you can figure out what they are!
- You can query multiple cells with a
query?coords=STRRPC, and set multiple cells’ states with a
STRshould consist of X,Y coordinate pairs separated by spaces or commas.
- There is also a